-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EUREF LOCAL ANALYSIS CENTRE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Agency acronym : LPT / L+T
Institution : Bundesamt fuer Landestopografie (swisstopo)
Mail Address : Seftigenstrasse 264
CH-3084 Wabern
Switzerland
E-Mail : pnac(at)swisstopo.ch (PNAC Team)
Primary Contact
Contact Name : Elmar Brockmann
Telephone : +41 58 469 0256
Fax : +41 58 469 0459
E-Mail : elmar.brockmann(at)swisstopo.ch
Secondary Contact
Contact Name : Daniel Ineichen
Telephone : +41 58 469 0151
Fax : +41 58 469 0459
E-Mail : daniel.ineichen(at)swisstopo.ch
Third Contact
Contact Name : Stefan Schaer
Telephone : +41 58 469 0454
Fax : +41 58 469 0459
E-Mail : stefan.schaer(at)swisstopo.ch
stefan.schaer(at)aiub.unibe.ch
Software Used : Bernese GPS Software Version 4.0
Bernese GPS Software Version 4.2 (since 14-Dec-1999)
Bernese GPS Software Version 5.0 (since 03-Apr-2005)
Bernese GNSS Software Version 5.2 (since 15-Apr-2013)
Stat. Included in Analysis : 4CHAR start- stop
ssss (EUR) wwww - now
ssss (IGS) wwww - wwww
ssss (IGS) wwww - now
ssss (EUR) wwww - now
24 sites (June 2005):
BORK BUDP DELF DENT DOUR EIJS
EUSK GRAS GRAZ HELG HOBU HOER
KOSG LINZ MLVL PADO PFAN PTBB
REDU TERS WARE WSRT WTZR ZIMM
35 sites (December 2006):
AUTN BADH BORK BSCN BUDP DELF DENT
DOUR EGLT EIJS ENTZ EUSK GRAS GRAZ
GUIP HELG HOBU HOE2 HOER KOSG LILL
LINZ MLVL PADO PFAN PTBB PUYV REDU
TERS VFCH WARE WSRT WTZR ZIMM
GRAZ and WTZR are pre-eliminated prior
to the weekly SINEX submission.
EUREF solutions generated : LPTwwww7.SNX Solution for 1 week for GPS week 'wwww' in SINEX format
for GPS week 'wwww' LPTwwww7.SUM Processing summary file for 1 week
LPTwwwwn.TRO Daily troposphere SINEX (based on weekly LPTwwww7.SNX)
LPTwwwwn.SNX Daily SINEX results (since 31-Mar-2014)
EUREF solutions sent to : BKG
Report generated : 12-Dec-1996
Report updated : 12-Jan-2000
16-Oct-2001
08-Jun-2005
11-Dec-2006
02-Jun-2014
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
MEASUREMENT MODELS
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Preprocessing : Phase preprocessing in a baseline by baseline mode
using triple-differences. In most cases cycle slips
are fixed looking simultaneously at different linear
combinations of L1 and L2. If a cycle slip cannot be
fixed reliably, bad data points are removed or new
ambiguities are set up. Data files covering less than
12 hours of data are automatically rejected.
The a posteriori normalized residuals of the obser-
vations are checked for outliers, too. These obser-
vations are marked for the final parameter adjustment.
Basic Observable : GNSS carrier phase only,
elevation angle cutoff 20 degrees,
since week 908 : 15 degrees (C.B.) and equal
weighting of the observations
since week 1130: 10 degrees and cos-z weighting of
the observations
since week 1400: 3 degrees + elevation dependent
weighting with cos-z,
inclusion of GPS + GLONASS observations
sampling rate: 30 sec for data screening
180 sec for final solution
Modelled : Double-differences, ionosphere-free linear combination.
observable
Ground antenna : up to week 1400: Relative phase center corrections
phase center based on IGS_01 model (no exceptions)
calibrations since week 1400: Absolute antenna phase center corrections
based on IGS05 model (exceptions for
stations with indiv. absol. calibrations
listed in epnc_05.atx) considering antenna
radome codes. If antenna/radome pair has no
available calibrations, the corresponding
values for the radome code "NONE" are used.
since week 1632: IGS08/EPNC model (updates)
Satellite antenna: up to week 1400: Relative antenna phase centre corrections
phase center based on IGS01 model.
calibrations since week 1400: Absolute antenna phase centre corrections
based on IGS05 model.
since week 1632: IGS08 model (updates)
Troposphere : up to week 1130: Saastamoinen a priori model,
estimating zenith delays in 2 hour
intervals for each station,
mapping function: 1/cos(zenith angle).
since week 1130: No a priori model,
estimating zenith delays in 1 hour
intervals for each station,
mapping function: Dry Niell.
Compute daily TRO files with fixed cummul.
coordinates input from weekly solution.
since week 1317: Saastaminen-based hydrostatic zenith delay
mapped using dry-Niell MF (as a priori
model), estimation of zenith delay
corrections at 1-hour intervals for each
station (using the wet-Niell MF).
Compute daily TRO files with fixed cummul.
coordinates input from weekly solution.
since week 1400: Dry-Niell as a priori model,
estimation of zenith delay corrections
at 1-hour intervals for each station,
using the wet-Niell MF, no a priori sigmas.
Horizontal gradient parameter estimated/day/station
(TILTING), no a priori constraints.
Compute daily TRO files with fixed cummul.
coordinates input from weekly solution.
since week 1731: GMF mapping function;
GPT model to compute hydrostatic delay;
Chen-Herring (CHENHER) gradient model.
No global troposphere estimates (from IGS, or CODE) are
introduced.
Ionosphere : CODE global iono models are considered. These models help to
increase the number of resolved ambiguities in the QIF, the
L5/L3 and the L1/L2 ambiguity resolution.
For the final adjustment, the ionosphere cancels out
due to the used ionosphere-free linear combination.
Higher-order ionosphere (HOI) corrections are applied.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
ESTIMATED PARAMETERS (APRIORI VALUES & SIGMAS)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Adjustment : Least-squares adjustment
Rejection Criter.: The described two-step preprocessing method eliminates
outliers. Rejection Criterion of L3 outliers: 0.0025 m,
since week 1317 reduced to 0.0020 m.
(normalized L1 zero-difference zenith value)
Station : Minimum constraint solution aligned to current ITRF using
coordinates an automatic fiducial station selection scheme.
NEQ SINEX results are generated (containing minimum
constained solution).
Troposphere : Relative constraints of 1 mm/hour are applied.
The SINEX troposphere files are based on the weekly
coordinate files (re-substitution).
Ionospheric : Cancels out in the ionosphere-free linear combination.
Internally, HOI scaling factors would allow to turn on/off
HOI corrections at NEQ level.
Ambiguity : QIF strategy used to resolve ambiguities in a baseline
processing mode using CODE global iono models (for baselines
up to 2000 km length). For baseline lengths shorter than
200 km, the L5/L3 approach is followed. For baselines shorter
than 20 km, the L1/L2 approach is followed.
Ambiguity resolution for an elevation cut-off of 10 degrees.
The resolved ambiguities are treated as integers in the
final network solution. Unresolved ambiguities are solved
for (without any constraint).
GLONASS is considered for ambiguity resolution.
Ambiguity : Ambiguities are resolved in a baseline-by-baseline
mode performing the following steps:
. Quasi-Ionosphere-Free (QIF) approach (<2000 km)
(also for GLONASS, same frequencies)
. Phase-based widelane/narrowlane method (<200 km)
(also for GLONASS, no restrictions)
. Direct L1/L2 method, also for GLONASS (<20 km)
(also for GLONASS, no restrictions)
GLONASS is considered for ambiguity resolution.
CODE ionosphere map information is used to support all
methods.
Satellite clock : Satellite clock biases are not estimated but eliminated
bias by forming double-differences.
Receiver clock : Receiver clock corrections are estimated during the
bias pre-processing using code measurements.
Orbits and ERPs : since week 908: We use the IGS orbits and ERPs.
Therefore we process the data with
a time delay of 18 days.
since week 1400: CODE orbits and EPRs (consistency
of GPS and GLONASS)
Planetary ephemeris:
up to week 1030: NEWCOMP
since week 1030: DE200
since week 1731: DE405
Ocean tides:
up to week 1030: NO
since week 1317: OT_CSRC
since week 1731: OT_FES2004
The Earth geopotential is modeled using:
up to week 1030: GEMT3
since week 1030: JGM3
since week 1731: EGM2008_SMALL
Nutation model:
since week 1317: IAU2000
since week 1731: IAU2000R06
Subdaily pole model:
since week 1317: IERS2000
since week 1731: IERS2010XY
Tidal : Solid tides: according to the IERS 2010 standards
displacements
Remark:
Due to a bug in Bernese V4.2, the step 2 correction was
applied with a wrong time argument (GPS weeks 1040 - 1316).
This causes annual variations with amplitudes of 1 cm in
station height (or correspondingly in the scale parameter
in case of minimum constraint solutions)
Ocean loading model:
up to week 1030: no model applied
since week 1030: ocean loading coefficients provided by
H.G.Scherneck
since week 1317: GOT00.2
since week 1367: FES2004 model
since week 1731: FES2004 model (updated)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------